This paper examines whether compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures is motivated by wanting to save lives or save the economy (or both), and which implications this carries to fight the pandemic. National representative samples were collected from 24 countries (N = 25,435). The main predictors were (1) perceived risk to contract coronavirus, (2) perceived risk to suffer economic losses due to coronavirus, and (3) their interaction effect. Individual and country-level variables were added as covariates in multilevel regression models. We examined compliance with various preventive health behaviors and support for strict containment policies. Results show that perceived economic risk consistently predicted mitigation behavior and policy support—and its effects were positive. Perceived health risk had mixed effects. Only two significant interactions between health and economic risk were identified—both positive.
What role does intergroup contact play in promoting support for social change toward greater social equality? Drawing on the needs-based model of reconciliation, we theorized that when inequality between groups is perceived as illegitimate, disadvantaged group members will experience a need for empowerment and advantaged group members a need for acceptance. When intergroup contact satisfies each group’s needs, it should result in more mutual support for social change. Using four sets of survey data collected through the Zurich Intergroup Project in 23 countries, we tested several preregistered predictions, derived from the above reasoning, across a large variety of operationalizations. Two studies of disadvantaged groups (Ns = 689 ethnic minority members in Study 1 and 3,382 sexual/gender minorities in Study 2) support the hypothesis that, after accounting for the effects of intergroup contact and perceived illegitimacy, satisfying the need for empowerment (but not acceptance) during contact is positively related to support for social change. Two studies with advantaged groups (Ns = 2,937 ethnic majority members in Study 3 and 4,203 cis-heterosexual individuals in Study 4) showed that, after accounting for illegitimacy and intergroup contact, satisfying the need for acceptance (but also empowerment) is positively related to support for social change. Overall, findings suggest that intergroup contact is compatible with efforts to promote social change when group-specific needs are met. Thus, to encourage support for social change among both disadvantaged and advantaged group members, it is essential that, besides promoting mutual acceptance, intergroup contact interventions also give voice to and empower members of disadvantaged groups.
The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between job apathy and organizational well-being among employees of a Russian organization. Using the example of 167 Russian-speaking working respondents, it was shown that job apathy is statistically significantly positively correlated with professional burnout, as well as negatively – with work engagement and job satisfaction. The results of this study can be used in the practice of assessment and consultation in labor psychology and human resource management.
In this study we examined the role of daydreams and daydreaming in decision-making process. The paper describes our results on the influence of daydreams and daydreaming on the emotional attitude towards life choices as well as on the search of a solution during decision making. The study involved 199 people aged 18 to 64 (164 females and 35 males). The study participants were asked to describe a recent situation of choice and evaluate it by a number of parameters. Subsequently, the participants were divided in two groups: the first one was asked to daydream whereas the second one – to recall the content of the day. Eventually the participants evaluated their experience and degree of involvement during the trial. In addition, they evaluated the situation of choice again. The "Subjective quality of choice” questionnaire by Leontiev D.A. and a few specially designed questionnaires were used to examine the influence of daydreaming on decision-making process. Daydreaming was found to reduce the emotional attitude towards the situation of choice and the experience of the significance of choice. The influence of daydreams on finding a solution in decision making process was not detected. Our results allowed for an assumption regarding the mechanisms of daydreams and daydreaming effect on decision making. Particularly, daydreaming is thought to actualize and clarify personal motives and meanings important to a person. This, in turn, allows one to place the situation in a wider context.
The article presents the results of a research work on the role of apathy in the formation of depression syndrome in male prisoners. Basing on the questionnaire polling results of men (N = 151) serving their sentences in one of the maximum security penal colonies in Omsk, an empirical model was built indicating that the formation of depression syndrome in male prisoners is a complex step-by-step process with early stages involving manifestation of hopelessness, boredom and loneliness and with apathy joining in at later stages. The analysis of social and demographic characteristics revealed that a prisoner's age, family situation, children, education, the sentence served or the charges of which he was convicted have no effect on his psychological symptoms (the prisoners' educational level is only found to influence the way hopelessness is experienced). The data obtained suggest that there is a necessity for educational activities in prisons and also indicate a potential utility of the results in the field of anti-crysis therapy for prisoners in Russia.
The use of grades in school education is a worldwide practice, while the traditional system of assessing knowledge is being criticized. Many educational systems around the world offer various alternative assessment systems, from criteria-based assessment to formative assessment. This publication presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the two most common systems for assessing knowledge and skills in Russian schools - the traditional mark and assessment in the system of developmental education of D. B. Elkonina-V.V. Davydov, suggesting the introduction of a system of criteria for assessing educational achievements of various types, self-assessment procedures, mutual assessment, non-emphasis on the results of assessment and comparisons of children. Two empirical studies were carried out on a sample of primary school students studying in two educational systems - grade and with the abolition of the traditional system of assessing knowledge. With the help of a projective methodology (Wishes for the magician, Questions for the wise man), a comparative study of the degree of concern about the assessments of schoolchildren in grades 3-4 of students in the traditional system of education (TO) and developmental (RO) was carried out. The results of the content analysis of the spontaneous desires of children and their questions to the sage (N (TO) = 327, N (RO) = 153) show that children from TO classes are more concerned about school grades than children from RO classes and only in these (TO ) classes had responses that emphasized formal assessments and achievements to the detriment of meaningful results. The results of the second study (N (TO) = 309, N (RO) = 78) confirm that assessments can have different meanings and take a different place in the structure of internal and external learning motivation and perseverance, having a different motivating function in children learning using different knowledge assessment systems. The results obtained testify in favor of constructing assessment in the logic of the system of developmental education, more differentiated, meaningful and objective, initially carried out together with the child, supporting the values of search, initiative, independent thinking and collective discussions, to a lesser extent accentuating external control and diligence.
This work is aimed at summarizing the theoretical progress made in understanding the role of perceived locus of causality in various activities The problem of the method of measuring the perceived locus of causality is analyzed. It is emphasized that for this design it is a multidimensional approach to measurement, which considers all types of causality locus as separate constructs, turns out to be the most promising one. Particular attention is paid to deter- minants and correlates, such as motivational regulation, in the context of educational activities, which attracts a multidimensional approach in its measurement oftener than in the analysis of other forms of activity.
Objective – Increasing life expectancy leads to an increase in the mean age of the workforce. The aging workforce implies new challenges for management and human resources. Existing findings on relations between age and burnout are controversial and scarce. Also, the problem of burnout problem amongst library workers in Russia received little attention from researchers.
Methods – The studied sample consisted of 620 public librarians from 166 public libraries of different regions (the Moscow region, Yaroslavl, Chelyabinsk, Novosibirsk, Astrakhan, and Republic of Buryatia) of the Russian Federation, who completed a self-reported online survey. For measuring burnout, a new Burnout Assessment Tool was implemented. To examine the associations of interest, the authors used structural equation modeling with a group correction approach. In addition, library location, general self-efficacy, and length of employment at the current workplace were utilized as predictors. All statistical analysis was performed in R.
Results – Findings confirmed the hypotheses partially and revealed negative links between exhaustion, mental distance, cognitive control, and age, while reduced emotional control did not relate to age. Urban librarians tended to demonstrate higher levels of mental distance and had more significant problems with emotional regulation than their rural counterparts. Also, the non-Moscow region librarians did not demonstrate correlations between age and reduced cognitive control. Moreover, they showed a positive link between age and reduced emotional control.
Conclusion – The current paper confirmed some previous results on the negative relations between burnout symptoms and chronological age. The results suggest the existence of higher risks of burnout for younger library workers. Potential mechanisms underlying the resilience of older workers are discussed.
Beginning with the historic racial desegregation in the United States, and spreading to other parts of the world, policy makers, guided by the findings of social scientists (e.g., Allport, 1954), have advocated for increased intergroup contact (e.g., in schools and neighborhoods) as the key to prejudice reduction and increased social cohesion. Recent work on the ‘irony of harmony’ effect ( Saguy, Tausch, Dovidio, & Pratto, 2009), however, suggests that intergroup contact can undermine disadvantaged group’s support for social change toward greater equality (e.g., Çakal, Hewstone, Schwär, & Heath, 2011; Dixon, Durrheim, & Tredoux, 2007). Using a large and heterogeneous dataset (N = 12,997 individuals from 69 countries), we demonstrate that intergroup contact and support for social change toward greater equality are positively associated among members of advantaged groups (ethnic majorities and cis-heterosexuals), but negatively associated among disadvantaged groups (ethnic minorities and sexual and gender minorities), supporting the ‘irony of harmony’ effect. Specification curve analysis revealed important variation in the size—and at times, direction—of correlations, depending on how contact and support for social change were measured. This allowed us to identify one type of support for change, willingness to work in solidarity for social change, that is positively associated with intergroup contact among both advantaged- and disadvantaged-group members.
Background. The Job Apathy Scale (JAS), developed by G.B. Schmidt (2017), has been widely used in industrial and organizational psychology. This scale examines two dimensions of job apathy, namely apathetic thought (weak interest in the job processes and unwillingness to develop strategies for the promotion of job efficacy) and apathetic action (investing little emotional energy in job tasks, coworkers, or the organization). Objectives. 1) To examine the psychometric properties of the JAS with Russian employees; 2) to assess the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on job apathy. Design. The sample was recruited using the convenience sampling method. Two hundred and seventy-five Russian employees were included in this cross-sectional study. In addition to the JAS, all participants completed measures assessing professional burnout, work engagement, and job satisfaction. Cronbach’s alpha values were used to assess the internal consistency of the JAS. Exploratory and confrmatory factor analyses were employed to examine the factor structure of the JAS. The nonparametric Spearman rank order correlation coefficient was used to examine the convergent and divergent validity of the JAS. The Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to assess the sociodemographic differences in job apathy. Results. Exploratory and confrmatory factor analyses supported a two-dimensional structure of the JAS. The Cronbach’s alpha values were .86 and .73 for the apathetic thought scale and the apathetic action scale, respectively. Job apathy was positively correlated with professional burnout and was negatively correlated with work engagement and job satisfaction. There is evidence of convergent and divergent validity of the JAS. The analysis using a one-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of age and marital status on job apathy: younger and married employees are more prone to apathetic action than their older and single colleagues. Conclusion. The JAS with the Russian employees is psychometrically reliable and valid, which argues for its scientifc and practice-oriented applications.
There is ample evidence that morphological and social cues in a human face provide signals of human personality and behaviour. Previous studies have discovered associations between the features of artificial composite facial images and attributions of personality traits by human experts. We present new findings demonstrating the statistically significant prediction of a wider set of personality features (all the Big Five personality traits) for both men and women using real-life static facial images. Volunteer participants (N = 12,447) provided their face photographs (31,367 images) and completed a self-report measure of the Big Five traits. We trained a cascade of artificial neural networks (ANNs) on a large labelled dataset to predict self-reported Big Five scores. The highest correlations between observed and predicted personality scores were found for conscientiousness (0.360 for men and 0.335 for women) and the mean effect size was 0.243, exceeding the results obtained in prior studies using ‘selfies’. The findings strongly support the possibility of predicting multidimensional personality profiles from static facial images using ANNs trained on large labelled datasets. Future research could investigate the relative contribution of morphological features of the face and other characteristics of facial images to predicting personality.
In the United States, many colleges offer some student athletes scholarships contingent on maintaining high-level performance at a particular sport. Consistent with the well-supported “undermining effect,” studies have demonstrated that such scholarships can reduce athletes’ intrinsic motivation for their sport during their college playing career. The present study examines what happens to former college athletes’ intrinsic motivation after college, even decades later. Three hundred forty-eight former Division I college athletes completed an online survey (67.5% men, Mage 49.2, 76% formerly on scholarship). Even after controlling for time elapsed since college, scholarship (vs. no scholarship) status was positively related to felt external motivation during college, and negatively related to present-day enjoyment of the target sport. Our findings suggest that undermining effects may persist much longer than previously documented (i.e., for decades, as opposed to hours, weeks, or months).
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) has grown substantially over the past 30 years. Much of that growth stems from the theory's rigorous empirical foundations and the elegance of the theory itself. Yet most of SDT's empirical support has been quantitative, with little attention to the possible contributions of a qualitative approach. This paper details two recent, qualitative studies of motivation in the realm of education that address critical issues in SDT. Study 1 (N= 195) explored the question, "Might there be different basic needs in other cultures?". Study 2 (N = 115) asked, "What is the experience of autonomy like for members of another culture?". In Study 1, an analysis of responses given by 195 teachers, psychologists and school principals of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia) revealed their consensus that the child's psychological well-being is based on satisfying the child's need for relationships. In Study 2, 115 graduate students (Kazan, Russia) described their experience of autonomy and non-autonomy at the university in the form of an essay. Analysis revealed two additional categories that distinguish these situations from each other: The time factor and the meaning of the situation for a person. In both studies, participants provided responses in their own words. These studies provide simple examples of how a qualitative design can push the boundaries of current understanding with respect to two central questions under cross-cultural debate. Suggestions for further research are offered.
John Holland’s theory of career orientations advises people to select careers that are congruent with their personalities. Similarly, self-concordance theory, based in self-determination theory, advises people to select personal goals that match their autonomous interests and identifications. We compared the predictive efficacy of the two theories in two studies of undergraduates, using the six career areas of Holland theory (RIASEC: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional) as a common base. Multilevel logit modeling in Study 1 showed that both the Holland score and an aggregate self-concordance score predicted independent variance in the outcome variable, current career choices. These effects were replicated in Study 2. Supplementary analyses showed that the identified motivation subscale was the primary source of these effects. Thus, career counselors may want to consider assessing students’ self-concordance for the six RIASEC domains, in particular their levels of identified motivation for those domains, in addition to assessing their Holland codes.
The present cross-cultural study utilized contemporary statistical techniques to explore the associations among conditional regard, ideal and actual self-concept, and relational authenticity, constructs with deep roots in the Rogerian and humanistic traditions. In three countries (China, Russia, and the United States) the experience of conditional regard in past and present relationships predicted larger discrepancies between ideal and actual self-concept, and lower feelings of authenticity within relationships. Implications for the study of self-concept and the development of self, as well as for practice, are discussed.
Objectives: The Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism) capture individual differences in aversive personality to complement work on other taxonomies, such as the Big Five traits. However, the literature on the Dark Triad traits relies mostly on samples from English-speaking (i.e., Westernized) countries. We broadened the scope of this literature by sampling from a wider array of countries. Method: We drew on data from 49 countries (N = 11,723; 65.8% female; AgeMean = 21.53) to examine how an extensive net of country-level variables in economic status (e.g., Human Development Index), social relations (e.g., gender equality), political orientations (e.g., democracy), and cultural values (e.g., embeddedness) relate to country-level rates of the Dark Triad traits, as well as variance in the magnitude of sex differences in them. Results: Narcissism was especially sensitive to country-level variables. Countries with more embedded and hierarchical cultural systems were more narcissistic. Also, sex differences in narcissism were larger in more developed societies: Women were less likely to be narcissistic in developed (vs. less developed) countries. Conclusions: We discuss the results based on evolutionary and social role models of personality and sex differences. That higher country-level narcissism was more common in less developed countries, whereas sex differences in narcissism were larger in more developed countries, is more consistent with evolutionary than social role models.
A number of scientific models attempt to explain engagement and well-being at work. Some of them focus mostly on personality factors that can be activated, whereas others concentrate on the characteristics of the work environment and organisational context. In the present paper, we propose to integrate the organisational and individual antecedents of engagement and well-being at work in a single model termed “Positive Organisational Profile” (POP). The research aims to validate a French-language assessment tool bringing together personality resources, resources of the organisational environment, and resources of work role that determine engagement, performance, and well-being at work, using a large sample of French employees (N = 1 734). The results of confirmatory factor analyses support the structural validity of the new questionnaire with 18 scales showing good measurement reliability (α in the .73-.93 range). Multiple regression analyses reveal predictable associations of different types of resources at work with work engagement, work addiction, exhaustion, boredom, work satisfaction, work-life balance, and self-reported work performance. The POP model offers an integral overview of antecedents of organisational and individual flourishing at work. The new French-language questionnaire of resources POP can be used in research and in the practice of organisational development to inform interventions by identifying the potential drivers of positive change in teams.
Completing the 2,650-mile Pacific Crest Trail (PCT) requires strong motivation, but what kind? This 2-wave study used the relative autonomy continuum (RAC) of self-determination theory (SDT) to assess thru-hikers’ initial and final hike motivations, and also assessed their subjective well-being (SWB) before and after the hike. Initial motivations did not predict PCT completion or total distance covered. Instead, increases in both identified and introjected motivation during the journey predicted hike performance. Also, completing the PCT did not affect participants’ SWB, unless they started with, or increased in, autonomous motivation. Results suggest that finishing long and grueling projects may require developing greater internal motivation en route. This can help people’s performance and also provide them with well-being benefits.
The article is dedicated to the analysis of the phenomenon of home as a metaphor for internal and external space in human life. Using specially selected metaphorical associative cards for analyzing the client’s image of home allows to work on such topics as one’s self-attitude and relationship with significant others, one’s family and life, to identify current internal conflicts, personal boundaries, meanings and values of a person, to find resources for solving problematic life situations. The article provides guidelines for creating a kit of thematic metaphorical cards, as well as a detailed description of exercises for individual and group work (for psychodiagnostic, psychotherapeutic and training purposes).
The paper proposes a new approach to measuring key parameters of choice as intentional activity. We developed and validated a 23-item questionnaire called the Subjective Quality of Choice (SQC) which measures four qualitative dimensions of choice: elaboration, emotional valence, autonomy, and satisfaction with the outcome. Three validation studies are presented. In the first study respondents from a large online sample evaluated the quality of important choices they made in life. Using structural equation modeling, we confirmed the structure of the SQC and investigated the associations of its scales with other measures. In the second study using a longitudinal design we replicated the structure of the SQC in a university choice context and investigated the criterion validity of its scales against well-being and academic outcome variables. In the third study we investigated the predictive validity of the SQC in a university applicant sample against an objective real-life outcome. The findings support the validity of the choice quality model.